About Turkey, General Turkey InformationAbout Turkey, General Turkey Information
About Turkey, General Turkey Information
Official Name: The Republic of Turkey (Turkiye Cumhuriyeti)
Founder: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ( 1881-1938 )
Population: 65.3 million (as of 2000)
Language: Turkish (uses Latin Alphabet)
Currency: Turkish Lira (TL)
Electricity: 220 volts a.c. all over Turkey
Weights and Measures: Metric and Kilo system
Flag: Red background with a white crescent and star in the middle
Geography : Turkey's land mass is 814,578 sq.km. (% 3 on the European continent, % 97 on the Asian continent) The European and Asian sides are divided by the Istanbul Bogazi (Bosphorus), the Sea of Marmara, and the Canakkale Bogazi (Dardanelles). Anatolia is a high plateau region rising progressively towards the east, broken by the valleys of about 15 rivers, including the Dicle (Tigres) and the Firat (Euphrates). There are numerious lakes and some, such as Lake Van, are as large as inland seas. In the north, the Eastern Black Sea Mountain chain runs parallel to the Black Sea; in the south, the Taurus mountains sweep down almost to the narrow, fertile coastal plain along the coast. Turkey enjoys a variety of climates, changing from the temperate climate of the Back Sea region, to the continental climate of the interior, then, to the Mediterranean climate of the Aegean and Mediterranean costal regions. The coastline of Turkey's four seas is more then 8,333 km long.
History : Turkey has been called "the cradle of civilization" and by traveling through this historic land, tourists will discover exactly what is meant by this phrase. The world's first town, a Neolithic city at Catalhoyuk, dates back to 6,500 B.C. From the days of Catalhoyuk up to the present, Turkey boasts a rich culture that through the centuries has made a lasting impression on modern civilization. The heir to many centuries of cultures makes Turkey a paradise of information and cultural wealth. Hattis, Hittites, Phrygians, Urartians, Lycians, Lydian's, Ionians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuk's, and Ottomans have all made important contributions to Turkish history, and ancient sites and ruins scattered throughout the country give proof of each civilization's unique distinction.
Turkey also has a very fascinating recent history. Upon the decline of the Ottoman Empire, a young man named Mustafa Kemal, who was a soldier by occupation but in character, a great visionary, took the defeat of World War I and turned it into a shining victory by liberating Turkey of al foreign invaders. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. He led his country into peace and stability, with tremendous economic growth and complete modernization. Through decades of change and growth, Turkey till boasts this success, living by its adopted motto of "Peace at Home, Peace in the World".
Population : 75,308,928 (July 2008 est.)
Language : Language
Turkish is the native tongue of 90 percent of the population in Turkey. Turks had used numerous written tongues since 8th century but the most common alphabets used by the Turks are the Kök Turk, Uygur, Arabic and Latin alphabets.
After the declaration of republic and the completion of the national unification, especially between 1923-1928 years, the problem of the alphabet is discussed and debated. In order to carry the new Turkish Republic to the modern civilization level, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic had believed to use the Western Culture and Civilization and therefore with this aim Latin letters which are rearranged in a manner that they are convenient to the vocal structure of the Turkish language are accepted instead of the Arabic alphabet which was currently in use in 1928.
The Historic development of Turkish Language as a written tongue:
Ancient Turkish (VI - X Century) : The language used in Uygur tongue written documents with the Orhon and Yenisey Inscriptions.
Intermediate Turkish (XI - XV Century) : This language certifies the period between the first Islamic written document and completion of the formation of the new written Turkish dialects. (Anatolian Turkish - Azerbaijani Turkish - Turkoman Turkish)
New Turkish (XV - XX Century) : (Uzbek language - Kipchak Language)
In Anatolia, a written language called Ottoman language which was developed from Oğuz language was used during this period.
Modern Turkish (XX Century) : The modern Turkish includes the Turkish dialects used in various locations all around the world in XX. Century. In this century, Turkey Turkish language is used in Anatolia.
Turkish is located among the ending languages in the world tongue classification. The root of the words are not altered while the word structure and declination. The declinations and building of the words are executed by the affixes. The order of the words and affixes are as "root + building affix + declination affix" .
There are 29 letters in Turkish language in the Republic period Latin letters. ç,ğ,ı,ö,ş letters are peculiar only to Turkish alphabet. .
Religion : 99 % of the Turkish population is Muslims. Turkey is a secular government and therefore the members of other religions are free to realize their religious activities and ceremonies.
Tourism : In recent years, Turkey has become a major tourist destination in Europe. With the rapid development of both summer and winter resorts, more and more people from around the world are able to enjoy the history, culture, and beautiful sites of Turkey. From swimming in the Mediterranean to skiing in Uludag, Turkey has something to offer every tourist.
Agriculture : This plays a very important role in the Turkish economy. The main crops are wheat, rice, cotton, tea, tobacco, hazelnuts, and fruit. Sheep are Turkeys most important livestock, and Turkey is one of the major cotton and wool producers.
Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP) : GAP is a multi-purpose, integrated development project comprising of dams, hydroelectric power plants and irrigation facilities currently being built on the Firat (Euphrates) and Dicle (Tigris) rivers. It will effect agriculture, transportation, education, tourism, health and other sectors. ATATURK DAM, included in the project, is among the first 10 dams in the world.
Natural resources : The principal minerals extracted are coal, chrome (an important export), iron,copper, bauxite, marble and sulphur.
Industry : Industry is developing rapidly and is directed mainly towards the processing of agricultural products, metallurgy, textiles, and the manufacture of automobiles and agricultural machinery.
Famous Landmarks :
Ayasofya Museum, Topkapi Palace, Blue Mosque, Dolmabahce Palace, ancient City of Troy, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Pergamon, Pamukkale, Göreme- Cappadocia, Mt.Nemrut, Safranbolu.